The process of oil painting differs from painter to painter, often but it includes certain customary steps. First, the artist prepares the surface. Although surfaces like linoleum, pressed wood, wooden panel, and cardboard have been used, the most popular surface and often used is canvas. While many painters have used panels for paintings (for instance Da Vince’s Mona Lisa) these can be susceptible for cracking and it is fairly small. Stretched canvas has no such problem.
Conventional artist’s canvas is made up of linen, but anyhow less expensive cotton fabric then gained popularity. First the artist prepares a wooden frame called a “stretcher” then the canvas is pulled across the wooden framed and stapled toughly to the back edge. The next step is to apply a ground to isolate the canvas from the acidic qualities of the paint. The canvas is normally coated with rabbit skin glue and prepared with subsequent layers of finely ground chalk.
Later the process was altered to sizing of rabbit skin glue with following layers of white priming. The artist may apply many required layers of gesso, sanding every smooth after it dries up. It is possible to tone the gesso to a particular color, but normally store-bought gesso is white. The gesso layer would tend to draw the oil painting into the porous surface, depending up on the thickness of the gesso layer.
Next the artist may sketch an outline of their subject before applying pigment to the surface. Pigment is normally mixed with oil, usually linseed oil but other oils might be used as well. The various oils dry differently, which create assorted effects. Handling and mixing the raw pigments and mediums was excessive to transportation.
The painter most often uses a brush to apply the paint. Brushes are normally prepared from different fibers to make different effects. Sizes of brushes even create different effects. “Bright” brushes are used to apply broad swaths of color. The artist may also use paint with palette knife that is flat, metal blade. A palette knife might be used to remove paint from the canvas when necessary. Painter may also use unusual tools, such as rags, sponges and cotton swabs. Some artists even paint with their fingers.
Most artists paint in layers, a method first introduced in the Egg tempera painting technique, and then adapted in Northern Europe for use with linseed oil paints. After this layer dries the artist would apply “glazes” to the painting, using a process of “Fat over Lean” that means more oil paint ratio than the previous layer. This method is known as “Alla Prima.” When the image is finished and dried, an artist will normally seal the work with a layer of varnish usually made from Damar gum crystals dissolved in turpentine. Contemporary artists increasingly defy varnishing their work, desire that the surfaces remain varnish-free indefinitely.
Task Lighting: It refers to the higher level of light offered specially at work areas such as kitchen islands, countertops and desks. Additional light could be redirected to these areas using recessed or pendant fixtures. Fixtures with either low or line-voltage halogen offer a whiter, warmer light. 5 watt xenon or halogen lamps spaced 6 inches apart are most suitable for task lighting purposes where the fixture is within 24 inches of the work surface. The transformer is as well included in many low voltage fixtures but it is sometimes separated depending on the particular fixture and style.
Accent Lighting: Accent lighting is approximately four times the level of ambient light in any area. Same again, Halogen lighting type fixtures offer a whiter, brighter look than standard incandescent or florescent type of fixtures. The chosen fixture needs to be directional on swivel type fixture to aim the light exactly where it is required. For further museum-type effect, some fixtures could include a focusing lens for pinpoint accuracy.
Wall Washing: It is again a type of Accent Lighting, which creates an area of uniform illumination, which might desirable for a series of photos or further artwork. Wall washing typically reduces the texture of wall surface. Often the reflected light could even create ambient light in the remainder of the room that appears pleasing and restful.
Wall Grazing: It is just opposite to Wall Washing, it creates a dramatic highlight and shadow effect on surfaces such as draperies, stone or brick. Ceiling light fixtures for Wall Grazing are placed near to wall in order to highlight the three-dimensional effect.
Lighting that is perceptively measured and organized could make a real difference and will bring an improvement that lasts for years together. Many home improvements Stores also have sample displays of different lighting systems and fixtures. As today there are huge variety of appliances and electronics, lighting fixtures available, be sure you purchase from reputable company. There are numerous online retailers, which offer name brand fixtures delivered to your door at very competitive prices.